Polyinosinic acid used as a model RNA, is composed of a polynucleotide chain. It consists entirely of inosinic acid residues. Polyinosinic acid is made from polycytidylic acid. It is a homopolymer of inosine used with polycytidylic acid to form a double stranded homopolymer. This acts as a major effector of the immune response against viral pathogens. Polyinosinic acid is primarily used in the form of sodium salt to simulate viral infections.
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Polyinosinic acid (abbreviated as Poly I:C) along with polycytidylic acid acts as an immunostimulant. It is known to interact with toll-like receptor 3, which is expressed in the membrane of B-cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Polyinosinic acid enhances delivery of adenovirus vectors. It is used primarily in pharmaceuticals, health care, and medical sectors. Polyinosinic acid is employed as a potent adjuvant in the medical sector to enhance the specific anti-tumor immune responses against a peptide-based vaccine. Growth in pharmaceutical and health care sectors is expected to boost the demand for polyinosinic acid in the next few years. Polyinosinic acid is anticipated to penetrate the market rapidly due to the various research and development activities conducted by several companies and medical organizations. It is not available widely since it is medical product; however, demand for polyinosinic acid is high due to its anti-tumor immune responses. Polyinosinic acid requires ionic strength to maintain the double strand structure. In order to prevent denaturation, polyinosinic acid is reconstituted in solutions with physiological salt concentrations. Furthermore, it may require heating and cooling to achieve re-annealing.
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Asia Pacific held the major share of the polyinosinic acid market in 2015, led by the high growth of pharmaceutical and medical sectors. Demand for polyinosinic acid is also high in Europe and North America. The U.S., Germany, China, India, and Japan accounted for key share of the polyinosinic market in 2015. Polyinosinic acid is highly produced and consumed in these countries due to the increase in population, high standard of living, rise in number of diseases among the people, and expansion in pharmaceutical and medical sectors. Middle East & Africa constituted smaller share of the polyinosinic market in 2015; however, demand for polyinosinic acid is anticipated to rise at a rapid pace in the region in the next few years. Optimization of physicochemical properties of polyinosinic acid has led to generation of derivatives that have increased stability in body fluids (such as polyICLC), or reduced toxicity through reduced stability in body fluids. This is estimated to boost the polyinosinic acid market during the forecast period.
Key manufacturers of polyinosinic acid across the globe include Biotain Pharma Co. Ltd., N&R Bio Industries Inc., Beijing Isomersyn Technology Co. Ltd., Hubei XinyuanShun Chemical Co. Ltd., and Hangzhou Dingyan Chem. Co. Ltd.
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